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Flatbreads

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Buying Teff
-----------
A search in Grocery & Gourmet Food at Amazon.com for teff returns many 
options in both milling and teff types.


Ethiopian Recipies and Food Suggestions
---------------------------------------
I found this recipe in the Lassen Family Natural Foods newsletter of August
1993; I haven't tried it yet, but it looks like fun. Judging from the 
source, I would guess that you can find the main ingredient in health food 
stores.

Text and recipe copied/paraphrased without permission.

Teff is the staple grain of Ethiopia. The grain yields a seed much smaller
than the size of a wheat grain, but is the basis of Ethiopian traditional
cookery.  Teff flour is the main ingredient of the pleasantly sour pancake
like bread known as injera, which literally underlies every Ethiopian meal.

To set an Ethiopian table, one lays down a circular injera on top of which 
the other food is arrayed, directly, without any plate. Other injeras are 
served on the side and torn into pieces to be used as grabbers for the food
on the "tablecloth" injera. Eventually, after the meal is finished, you eat
the tablecloth, a delicious repository of the juices from the food that has
been resting on it.

Nutrition-minded Americans have turned to teff as a source of calcium, 
fiber, and protein. It is also an alternative grain for people allergic to 
the gluten in wheat. It has an appealing, sweet, molasses-like flavor, and 
it boils up into a gelatinous porridge.

Posted by Garry Howard to rec.food.veg,rec.food.cooking on 19 Nov 1993.


Injera
------
  3/4 cup teff, ground fine (this may be done either in a flour mill or 
      in a blender after moistening in 3 1/2 cups water)
  salt
  sunflower or other vegetable oil

1.  Mix ground teff with 3 1/2 cups water and let stand in a bowl covered 
with a dish towel, at room temperature, until it bubbles and has turned 
sour. This may take as long as 3 days. The fermenting mixture should be the
consistency of pancake batter (which is exactly what it is).

2.  Stir in salt, a little at a time, until you can barely detect the 
taste.

3.  Lightly oil an 8- or 9-inch skillet (or a larger one if you like). Heat
over medium heat. Then proceed as you would with a normal pancake or crepe.
Pour in enough batter to cover the bottom of the skillet. About 1/4 cup 
will make a thin pancake covering the surface of an 8-inch skillet if you 
spread the batter around immediately by turning and rotating the skillet in 
the air. This is the classic French method for very thin crepes. Injera is 
not supposed to be paper thin so you should use a bit more batter than you 
would for crepes, but less than you would for a flapjack.

4.  Cook briefly, until holes form in the injera and the edges lift from 
the pan. Remove and let cool.

Yields 10 to 12 injeras.

Posted by Garry Howard to rec.food.veg,rec.food.cooking on 19 Nov 1993.


Injera (Ethiopian Sourdough Flatbread)
--------------------------------------
Makes 5 Large Injeras (Crepes)

2 cups TEFF flour
2 cups self-rising flour, rice or barley flour <-- only rice for us!
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
5 cups luke warm water

In a large bowl mix 2 1/2 cups water with 2 cups TEFF flour.

In a blender mix self-rising or other flour, 1/2 teaspoon baking powder and
2 1/2 cups water, then pour mixture into a second bowl.

Cover both bowls and leave them for 2-3 days until fermentation and water 
has risen to the top of each mixture.

Carefully pour off the water that now covers the mixtures.

Combine the two mixtures in one bowl, cover and let the mixture stand for 
2 hours until it rises.

Pour the batter evenly to form a thin layer over the surface of a large 
heated skillet. The skillet temperature should be 425F.

Cook mixture until a spongy, crepe-like bread is formed. Remove from heat 
and allow to cool.

Place food on injera and arrange folded injera around edges of serving 
dish. 

Injera around edge of dish are used to pick up morsels of food.

Taken From "Taste of Ethiopia"
Found in: Archive.org.


South Indian Cuisine
--------------------
I just returned from a trip to South India where I had little trouble
finding gluten free food in most little resturaunts.
Some great breakfast/snack items included:

Idilis (pronounced like Italy+s) Idilis are little steamed buns made
with rice and urrad dal. They are very plain so they are usually served
with a spicey broth called Sambar and a type of cocconut chutney unique to
South India.

A similar food is a thin crisp pancake made of the same mixture folded
around a spicy potato mixture that is called masala dosa. It too is served
with sambar and chutney.

And yet another is a small donut made with the same basic mixture that is
deep fried. It is called Vadai. Served with the same condiments.

From: John Wynhausen (jjwyn/POSTOFFICE.PTD.NET) on 21 Mar 1996


Aappam
------
Here is a recipe for "Aappam" -- a South Indian sponge type bread 
made with rice.
For about 6 aappams, soak 1 heaping cup of rice (do not use Uncle
Ben's or Basmati... Jasmine is fine)
Soak the rice overnight in room temp. water (3 cups).
The next morning, take 1/4 cup of cooked and cooled rice, 1/3 cup
of fresh grated coconut, (if not available, use the dry shredded
unsweetened type) and keep ready.
Grind the rice in a blender after draining most of the water (add
up to half and inch of water above the rice level in the blender)
until smooth. (Feel the ground mixture between your fingers and
it should not feel grainy, but smooth more or less). While the
motor is running, add the coconut from the lid hole, and next,
add the cooked rice. Grind till smooth. Add 1/4 cup more water if
needed.
Add 1 teaspoon of sugar, 1/4 teaspoon of salt, and 2/3 teaspoon
of yeast to this rice batter. Keep covered in a warm place (I
keep it near a heating device, or turn the oven on barely warm,
turn it off after 3 minutes, and place this in there.) Make sure
you have stirred this mixture well before letting it ferment.
It only takes about 3 to 4 hours to ferment. (Once fermented,
you can keep the batter in the fridge for up to 3 or 4 days).

Now it will look very airy and bubbly. Stir it gently top to
bottom like folding in cream or egg whites.
Heat a wok (yes, that is right) on medium high, and smear the
bottom with peanut or sesame oil (use veg. oil if you like)
When warm, (not smoky hot), add a ladleful of the batter, and
quickly rotate the wok gently so that the batter covers an area
about 8 inches in diameter. The idea is to have a pancake like
thing that is thick in the center, and really thin around the
edges. Cover this immediately.
After 30 seconds or so, remove cover to see if it is cooked. The
color would have changed from a milky white to a translucent
white. Lift it off gently using a spatula. Serve immediately.
Do not stack these. Place them spread out on a bamboo plate or
in individual plates.

Side dish for Aappam:
Rich but damn tasty coconut milk curry.
Fry some fennel seeds, cloves, and cardamoms on a tsp of oil. Add
chopped onions, garlic, green chillies, and minced ginger. Add
salt and fry well. Next, add one fresh tomato chopped (optional),
some chopped mint leaves, and some boiled potatoes and/or
cauliflower. Add a pinch of turmeric, and 2 cups of coconut
milk. (you might mix 1 cup of coconut milk with 1 cup of plain
milk).
Serve separately, or pour over aappams and eat with fingers.

Egg curry for Aappam:
Hard boil 2 eggs.
Chop half an onion, 1 large tomato, 4 green chillies, and mince
some ginger and garlic together.
Heat 1 tablespoon of veg. oil. Add 1/3 teaspoon cinnamon powder,
1/2 tsp turmeric, and the onions, and green chillies. Add salt,
and the minced garlic and ginger. Fry till onions turn golden
brown.
Add 1/2 teaspoon red chilli powder (this curry is supposed to be
killer hot, and I would add 1 heaped teasp usually), the tomato
pieces, and fry till pulpy. Slit the eggs from top to bottom
keeping it whole still so that the masala will seep in.
Add eggs to gravy, add 1/3 cup water, and let it evaporate.

Serve hot.

Garlic sambal:
Grind 3 large cloves of garlic, 1/2 tomato (optional), 10 red
chillies roasted in oil or plain roasted, 2 shallots, and 10
raisins till smooth. Add some salt and sesame oil in the end. Mix
well.

Serve all these with the Aappams.

From: Aruna Viswadoss (av9y/virginia.edu) 28 Nov 1995.


Indian Rice Bread (easy)
------------------------
Mix 2 cups of rice flour with 1/2 cup or less of boiling
hot water, 3 tablespoons chopped cilantro, 3 minced green
chillies, 1 teas. chopped curry leaves, and optionally, 1/2 cup
of coarsely powdered roasted peanuts. Add some salt, and 1
tablespoon or 2 of softened butter. Knead into a firm dough.
Keep covered when using it. Make 8 to 10 balls out of this.
Heat a skillet on med. high. Sprinkle some rice flour on a clean
working area. Flatten each rice ball into a thin bread [While
traditionally Mom will not use a rolling pin for this, it will
probably help beginners].

Cook one or two at a time [depending on size of skillet]. When
one side is dry, flip it over to cook the other side, and when
slightly golden, drizzle a few drops of veg. oil or ghee
around the bread, Make sure the bottom gets the benefit,
and flip again to cook the top and drizzle oil/ghee around.

This does not need anything to "go" with it. But still, we serve
it with coconut chutney made with fresh coconut, roasted peanuts,
a wee bit tamarind pulp (can use paste), green chillies and red
chillies, and a bit of ginger and curry leaves; add salt and
water and grind them all together.

From: Aruna Viswadoss (av9y/virginia.edu)


Sorghum/Bajraflour/Corn Flours
------------------------------
Back home, we treat sorghum/bajraflour/corn flour etc the way we
treat wheat flour while making rotis.
        For 4 roties, take about a heaped cup of any of the above
flours, (you can mix them if you want), add 2 teaspoons of
vegetable oil, 1/4 cup of milk, and the rest water (about a 1/4?
add more flour if necessary). Add some salt as well, and
optionally, some grated radishes, green chillies, onions [when
adding vegetables, make sure to reduce the amount of water-- mix
flour with salt and veggies first, then add the liquids]. Knead
into a tight and firm dough. Punch it, make it into a ball, beat
it forcefully on a hard surface (a good time to vent your
frustrations/anger :))]. When the sides of the container are
free of residual flour or dough, and the dough looks smooth ,
smear the surface with a few drops of oil, keep covered, and
allow to rest.
        (all this takes about 3 minutes or less).
Make four balls out of the dough, dip each into dry flour, and
roll it out into thin and even circles using a rolling pin.  (If
you have not done this before, don't worry about the shape as
long as you get even surfaces. Put this on a hot ungreased
(non-stick can help beginners) skillet. When you see the color
lighten because of the dryness, turn it over, and repeat the same
on the other side.
        Now is the tricky part. If you have a barbecue type
grill, cook this over live coals till brown spots appear. If you
do not have much time, use a paper towel balled up, and while
still on the skillet, increase the heat slightly, and keep
pressing the roti gently while rotating it at the same time. Cook
both sides till golden brown spots appear.
        It should puff up completely, or in places. Remove from
skillet, beat it once to let the air out, smear some ghee on it,
and stack the roties till all are done.

[Once trained, you can make all this in 15 minutes if you
parallel process].

From: Aruna Viswadoss (av9y/virginia.edu) 27 Nov 1995


Flatbread
---------
1/2 c. amaranth flour
1/2 c. tapioca flour
2 tsp. arrowroot powder
2 tsp. light, cold-pressed oil
1/2 cup water
1/3-2/3 cup extra flour for kneading

Sift the flours with the arrowroot powder. In a separate bowl, mix the oil
and water, then add to the flour mixture. Work the dough with a fork and
then your hands. Knead briefly and roll into a ball. Divide the ball into 8
parts. Roll each part into a ball and pat flat. Sprinkle each bread with
flour and roll between 2 sheets of waxed paper with a rolling pin. Turn
frequently while rolling, and lift the waxed paper occasionally to add flour
so the dough does not stick. The bread should be rounded and about 1/8 inch
thick.

Preheat the oven to 400 degrees. Lightly oil a frying pan and heat to
medium-high. Put one flatbread in the pan and heat 15-20 seconds on each
side. Immediately put bread in oven and heat 3 minutes. turn over and heat
1 1/2 - 2 more minutes. The bread will puff up a bit in the oven, but not as
much as traditional pita because it has no yeast. Re-oil the pan with a
paper towel dipped in oil, and repeat procedure for each flatbread.

Cool breads before storing in plastic bags. Makes 8 breads.


Chick Pea Chipatis
------------------
1 cup chick pea flour
1/3 cup water
2 Tbs. arrowroot powder
1 Tbs. light, cold-pressed oil
Optional:  1/4 tsp salt

Mix all ingredients well. Roll into 1" balls and pat flat. With a rolling
pin, roll out pastry-like rounds.

Heat a lightly oiled frying pan until very hot. Reduce heat to medium high
and heat each round for 1-2 minutes on each side, until warmed and slightly
browned.  Serve hot or store in the refrigerator.

Chipatis may be eaten hot from the pan, or cold, or lightly toased.  They are
wonderful with rice or Indian foods, and they make a good bread substitute
for sandwiches. This recipe makes 8-10 chipatis.

These recipes I found in a vegetarian cookbook, The All Natural Allergy
Cookbook: Dairy-Free, Gluten-Free by Jeanne Marie Martin. This book
has some good recipes, not all truly gluten or dairy free however.  

Posted by CBraffet/AOL.COM to the CELIAC list on 19 Apr 1995.

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